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Richard Ishida

986 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Wu Xiaoqian , Richard Ishida 986 days ago
目錄 (Table of Contents)
  • 第一章 緒論 / 1. Introduction
董福興
  • 完成,請Review。
Chen Y
  • Bobby++
董福興
  • 完成,請Review。
  • 1.3 本文件之構成 / Structure of this document
 
  • 第二章 中文排版基礎 / 2. Basics of Chinese composition
  • 請Review,另外,標點符號要寫在這裡呢?還是3-2好?
  • 請Review
Wu X
  • 这个翻译对吗?这章节跟前面版心是什么关系?
 
  • 第三章 行內文字排版處理 / 3. Line composition
  • 3.1 內文樣式 / General line composition(1st edition: Not for FPWD
董福興
  • 包含Dropcap, Emphasis
  • 包含Autospace, baseline
  • 3.5 段落對齊 / Paragraph adjustment rules (1st edition: not for FPWD
  • 3.6 跳格處理 / Tab setting(1st edition: not for FPWD
  • 3.7 計數單位 / Measurements(1st edition: not for FPWD
 
  • 第四章 標題、註解與圖片、表格的排版處理 / 4. Positioning of headings, notes, illustrations, tables & expressions
  • 4.2 註解的排列 / Processing of notes
  • 4.3 圖片與表格與計算公式的處理 / Processing of illustrations, tables & expressions
Wu X
  • 这里是否可以加上“公式”?如数学公式、物理公式等等。可参考GB 7713—87
 
  • 附錄 / Appendices
 
938 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Richard Ishida 938 days ago
Chinese Ruby, also known as Interlinear Annotation, is small, supplementary text attached to certain characters or words in the main text. Chinese ruby is usually set in the interlinear space and aligned to the corresponding base text which it annotates. In Chinese typesetting, Chinese ruby is mainly used to indicate pronunciation or meaning.
 
  • In Chinese, interlinear annotation is most commonly used to indicate the pronunciation of Hanzi, the Chinese characters. Presenting the pronunciation alongside the characters is a great help to beginners, especially to children who are native speakers, or to foreigners intending to study Chinese. Therefore, it is rare to annotate isolated Hanzi characters. Instead, phonetic annotations tend to cover the full text. Also, it is not regular practice in Chinese layout to use ruby for pronunciation outside these educational contexts, even for the pronunciation of rarely used characters, although sometimes pronunciation is provided inline, possibly inside brackets.
 
  • There are two major annotation systems for indicating Chinese pronunciation: Zhuyin and Romanization.
 
  • Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號) or Taiwanese Dialect Phonetic Symbols (台灣方言音符號), hereinafter referred to as ‘Zhuyin’, are systems for phonetic annotation mainly used in Taiwan, although other areas may also include Zhuyin in certain dictionaries or textbooks. In most cases, Zhuyin appears on the right side of its corresponding base text. Exceptions are very rare.
 
  • Hanyu Pinyin (汉语拼音), now the official standard in Mainland China, uses the Latin alphabet to transcribe the Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin) pronunciations of Chinese characters. The most common use case in Mainland China is to indicate the pronunciation for all characters of the full text with Hanyu Pinyin. In Taiwan and Hong Kong, the arrangement of the Taiwanese Romanization System for Minnan (台灣閩南語羅馬字), the Romanization System of the Hong Kong Education and Manpower Bureau (教育學院拼音方案) or romanization systems of other Chinese dialects are similar to those of Hanyu Pinyin.
  •  
  • 因拉丁字母的特质,此类标音文本仅横排。针对幼儿母语者的文本以单字作为基文进行标音。针对二语学习者的文本除偶有与前者一致的格式外,大多分词连写,以词作为基文进行标音,基文之间如西文书写般用空格隔开,并且注文有句首大写、专名首字母大写等格式以及与正文对应的标点符号,自成一体。汉语拼音早期印刷品的格式较为多变,一致性不强。大体上,单字标音与分词连写标音都常见不作详细描述。
  • Due to the characteristics of the Latin alphabet, such annotations appear in horizontal writing mode only. Texts for children who are native speakers usually provide reading assistance for each individual character, while texts for those who are learning Chinese as a second language mainly indicate pronunciation for whole words, but occasionally, both of them are set almost the same. There is space between the base text when whole words are annotated, and the ruby characters will have unique requirements such as sentence case, or punctuation marks corresponding to base characters. Early publications using Pinyin are very varied and lack consistency. Both character-based and word-based annotations are quite common. No further description of the early pinyin will be found in this document.
 
  • Interlinear comments are ways to annotate the meaning of text fragments or a single word, and are so named for their interlinear positioning. They usually lie in the interlinear space and co-exist with the body text. Compared to other annotation methods, i.e. headnotes or footnotes, interlinear comments are more compact and stick better to the body. These kinds of comments are often found in ancient books, such as Rouge Inkstone, an early commentary of the novel Dream of the Red Chamber.
 
In horizontal writing mode, Zhuyin can be placed above the base text, but in most cases they are still set to the right side of the base text. On the other hand, Romanization and bilingual annotations can appear both above or below the base text, and the interlinear comments are usually placed at the bottom of the base text.
 
Annotating with both Romanization and Zhuyin is a practical way to indicate the reading to readers who know only one of these systems, as well as helping study of or enquiries about the other one. Normally, when Romanization and Zhuyin are both provided, the Zhuyin are placed on the right side of the Hanzi while Romanization is set at the bottom of the Hanzi in horizontal writing mode and to the left side in vertical writing mode.
Richard I
  •  if set to the left in vertical mode, is the pinyin annotation rotated?  If so, we should probably mention that, just to be clear.  Note also, btw, that earlier we say "such annotations appear in horizontal writing mode only".
 
  • According to the Manual of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號手冊) released by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, there are two standard ways of positioning Zhuyin: above the corresponding Hanzi (horizontal Zhuyin), or on the right side of the corresponding Hanzi (vertical Zhuyin). The use cases for putting Zhuyin above the base characters are rarely found in today's textbooks or other publications, and it is rarely used by the public at large. Therefore, it's always better practice to place Zhuyin annotations on the right side of their corresponding Hanzi, whether in horizontal or vertical writing mode.
 
  • The aspect ratio of initials, medials and finals is 9:9, while that of Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialect non-checked tones is 5:5, that of Mandarin neutral tones is 9:2, and that of dialectal checked tones is 5:5. More details and figures can be found in  Positioning of Different Composition for the Tones below.
 
  • I'm thinking that we should probably include the pictures in the Min of Educ guidelines in this document - it could be in an appendix (?)
Chen Y
  • ‘Checked tones’ are tones that belong to Chinese dialects only, i.e. Hoklo, not to Mandarin.
Richard I
  • I think we should mention this in the text, list the Unicode code points, and preferably have an example picture of them.  We should also list the normal mandarin tone code points in Unicode.
 
  • Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialectal non-checked tones, are placed by the upper right corner of the last phonetic symbol.
 
  • The dialectal checked tones are set alongside the lower right corner of the phonetic symbols.
 
  • 各種發音組合的排版方式
  • Positioning of Different Composition for the Tones
 
  • Like the line prohibition rules for punctuation, vertical Zhuyin annotations should stick to their base characters in horizontal writing mode. They must not appear in the line head, and must be placed on the right side of their corresponding Hanzi.
 
  • 3.4.4 羅馬拼音標音的排版
  • 3.4.4 Positioning of Romanized Ruby
 
  •  Is it set horizontally, or so that it runs down the page?  What makes it difficult to read?
  • Above we say that it is positioned to the left of the vertical column...
  • 若注文长于基文且位于行端,二者可向行端对齐。
  • If a Romanized annotation is longer than its base text and is at the line head or end, both the annotation and the base text can be aligned to the beginning of the line head or end.
  • Shouldn't this say: aligned to the beginning of the line head or the end of the line end?
  • 相邻注文的间距不应小于西文词间空格的宽度(约 1/4 em)。但受排版技术限制,许多出版物中过长的相邻注文都会紧密相连。因汉字为单音节文字且多数汉语拼音音节都容易辨认界限并不容易出现标音的歧义,但由于每个字的标音都已隔开,意外的相连易造成分词连写的假象,且相连的标音时常横跨词界,打乱语义。
  • The space between two adjacent annotations should not be smaller than the size of a normal Western-language space, which is about 1/4 em. Due to the limitation of the typesetting technologies, there is usually no space between the rather long phonetic annotations in many printed publications. Luckily, this is not likely to lead to ambiguity because each Hanzi contains one syllable and most Pinyin fragments are easy to tell apart. However, these annotations can be misleading sometimes. For example, character-based phonetic annotations may result in the false impression that they are word-based. Also, the accidentally concatenated annotations may disrupt word boundaries, which alters the semantic meanings of the words.
 
  • Annotations are allowed to extend to the top of adjacent base text as long as the minimum spacing is ensured. 
  • 因针对汉语初学者,正文通常用较大字号的楷体。
  • As most target readers are beginners to Chinese, the body text is usually in larger sizes and in the Kai typeface.
  • 因拉丁字母为变宽文字,同等字号下使用不同字体时的视觉大小也差异较大,注文与基文的字号关系并无定数。但受振假名的排版习惯影响,注文常使用基文 1/2 的字号。
  • Due to the fact that Latin letters are proportional (width unknown) and that the advance widths in different typefaces deviate greatly from one another, the relationship between the sizes of annotations and their base text is somewhat undetermined. Under the influence of the typesetting of Japanese furigana, however, annotations are usually of half size of the base text.
 
  • Annotations usually use a sans-serif typeface which is rather thin and plump.  It is generally the opinion in publishing and in education that Hanyu Pinyin must use those typefaces in which a and ‘g’ are single story and the second tone mark is thick on the lower part and thin on the upper, as in the handwritten style of the stroke. Actually there have never been any national standards specifying the typefaces and the glyphs for Hanyu Pinyin. 
  •  
  • 台灣「中華文化總會」曾去信大陸教育部詢問漢語拼音字形相關事宜部門回應表示,漢語拼音字母 a、g 對應相應的拉丁字母,呈現方式不需拘泥於手寫字形。
  • The General Association of Chinese Culture in Taiwan once wrote to the Ministry of Education in Mainland China about the rules for the glyphs of Hanyu Pinyin, and received the response that the glyphs of the letter a and ‘g’ correspond to those of Latin. There is no requirement demanding the handwritten glyphs.
 
  • The base text is a single Hanzi. Only Hanzi is annotated: European numerals or punctuation marks are excluded.
 
  • As the phonetic annotations are often wider than their base text, the tracking of the body text should be larger, to allow annotations to expand and to avoid irregular adjustments within the base text.
 
  • The base text contains one or more Hanzi. Rules for separating terms can be found in GB/T 16159—2012 Basic Rules of Hanyu Pinyin Orthography.
  • 注文有时在下方。
  • Annotations sometimes appear below the Han characters.
  • 正文与标音双方皆分词连写。相邻基文之间有约 1/2 em 的空格隔开,基文内部字距通常正常。
  • Both the phonetic annotations and the base text are separated at word boundaries. The adjacent annotations are separated by a space approximately 1/2 em wide, while the tracking inside the base text is usually normal.
 
  • Erhuayin, also known as rhotacization of syllable finals, is a special phonetic phenomenon in Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin). Due to the limitations of annotating single Hanzi, the Zhuyin annotations fail to indicate the continuity of Erhuayin and the change of the final sound, while Romanization shows the features of Erhuayin effectively.
  •   think we also need an illustration.
 
  • Ligatures are special for their multisyllabic nature, thus its ruby annotation may be typeset incorrectly. The pronunciation of ligatures should be bracketed inline or given in notes instead. Ligatures are rare in the modern Chinese writing system.
  •  Again, I'm not clear what is meant here by ligature
 
Typesetting of bilingual annotations is actually quite similar to that of Romanization. Annotations are usually placed at the top side of the annotated text the right side of the base text in vertical writing mode or on top of the base text in horizontal writing mode. -->
Wu X Typesetting of bilingual annotations is actually quite similar to that of Romanization. Annotations are usually placed to the right of the base text in vertical writing mode, or above the base text in horizontal writing mode.
 
  • In order to maintain the unity of terms, when the lengths of annotations and their base text are different, it is necessary to adjust the alignment between them to avoid misunderstandings.-->
Chen Y
  • In order to maintain the integrity of annotations, when the lengths of annotations and their base text are different it is  necessary to adjust the alignment between them to avoid  misunderstandings.
 
  • 當注文總長小於其基文的長度時,將注文設置居中(適用西文)或加大注文字距(適用漢字),後者更有「間隔平均分配」及「始末端對齊」二種方式。
  • When the length of one annotation is shorter than that of its base text, the annotation can be aligned centered (applied to Western script) or use a larger tracking (applied to Hanzi). There are two methods to satisfy the latter, one is to equally distribute the spacing while the other is to align justified.-->
  • When  the length of an annotation is shorter than that of its base text, the  annotation can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use larger tracking (in the case of Hanzi). There are two methods to satisfy  the latter, one is to equally distribute the spacing while the other is  to align justified.
 
  • 當注文總長大於其基文的長度時,將基文設置居中(適用西文)或加大基文字距(適用漢字)。
  • When the length of one annotation is longer than that of its base text, the base text can be aligned centered (applied to Western script) or use a larger tracking (applied to Hanzi). -->
  • When  the length of an annotation is longer than that of its base text, the  base text can be center-aligned  (in the case of Western script) or use a  larger tracking (in the case of Hanzi).
 
Interlinear comments can have very varied layouts and lengths. They are usually placed at the foot side of the annotated textthe left side of the base text in vertical writing mode or the bottom of the base text in horizontal writing mode. Sometimes the interlinear comments are in other colors to help reader tell the difference from the body text . -->
Wu X Interlinear comments can have very varied layouts and lengths. They are usually placed at the foot side of the annotated textto the left side of the base text in vertical writing mode or  below the base text in horizontal writing mode. Sometimes the interlinear comments are in other colors to help the reader tell the  difference from the body text .
 
Interlinear comments are also used to explain the context and details of a longer text fragment. In such cases, due to the ambiguity of the base text, the annotation can find a suitable place as an anchor and flow down. There's no strict requirement for its length, and sometimes it can be longer than one line.
 
Talking about the other Hanyu Dialect in Taiwan, Min Nan usually follows the official Taiwanese Romanization System, while Hakka follows a official standard named the Taiwanese Hakka Phonetic Transcription System and Popular Hakka Phonetic Transcription. -->
The other Hanyu Dialect in Taiwan, Min Nan usually follows the official Taiwanese  Romanization System, while Hakka follows an official standard named the  Taiwanese Hakka Phonetic Transcription System and Popular Hakka Phonetic  Transcription.
客家語腔調多元,同一字詞對「四縣」「海陸」「大埔」「饒平」「詔安」五大客家語腔調的發音通常皆有不同,為了完整標示各種發音,客家語較少使用ruby來標注漢字讀音。
Hakka has varied tones,  even a single character may correspond to different Hakka tones (xi ien/ian kiongˊ, hoi├ liukˋ, @@). Ruby is used less in Hakka because it fails to fully indicate Hakka's pronunciation.
 
...
938 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Richard Ishida 938 days ago
  • There are many similarities of Chinese and Japanese compositions. Distinctions can also be found due to the differences of their own writing systems. -->
Chen Y
  • There  are many similarities between Chinese and Japanese composition.  Distinctions can, however, be found due to the differences of the writing systems.
 
  • It describes those parts different from Chinese composition mentioned in Requirements for Japanese Text Layouts.   -->
  • It describes features of Chinese composition that differ from those mentioned in Requirements for Japanese Text Layouts.
  1. 說明中文排版所表現的結果,以及將結果視為問題,即是中文排版需求。同時提處理原理或方式,但不提出具體處理技術。
  • It explains the presentational results and considers these results as the issues and the requirements for Chinese text layout. Meanwhile, it offers the principles or methods of how to handle these issues, without describing particular technological solutions. -->
  • It  describes presentational results and considers these results as issues  and requirements for Chinese text layout. Meanwhile, it offers  principles or methods for how to handle these issues, without describing particular technological solutions.
  1. 針對目前中文排版上所遇到不明確的問題,試圖提出處理方法或以列舉的方式提出說明。
  • As for those issues that people face nowadays in Chinese composition, it attempts to suggest solutions or explain these issues. -->
Richard I
  • It suggests solutions for or explains issues that people face nowadays in Chinese composition
 
  • It mainly explains modern Chinese publications. Tracked back to the publications from the movable type times, there may be some differences from the modern ones, but are still considered part of the Chinese composition. As for ancient books, the document has not fully covered them yet. The future editions may revise with such situations. --
Chen Y
  • It  mainly explains modern Chinese publications. Looking back to the  publications in movable type times, there may be some differences, but they are still considered part of Chinese  composition. The document does not yet fully cover  ancient books them yet. Future editions may be revised with such features in mind.
 
  • For non-Chinese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. They are intuitive for ordinary Chinese text readers, which is comprehensible for non-Chinese readers. These frequencies are only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues.  -->
  • For  non-Chinese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each  requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate  research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. They are  intuitive for ordinary Chinese readers, which is comprehensible for  non-Chinese readers. These frequencies are only rough information to  prioritize the importance of issues.
  1. 本文以書籍作為主要描述對象,但也包括雜誌、報紙等不同排版方式。
  • The main target of this document is common books. Other publications, such as magazines or newspapers, are also included.
 
938 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Richard Ishida 938 days ago
Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. In that sense, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology. -->
Chen Y Each cultural community has its own language,  script and writing system. For that reason, the transfer of each writing  system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.
 
As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document summarizes the text composition requirements in the Chinese writing system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe the issues in the Chinese layout requirements, another one is to provide satisfactory equivalent to the current standards (i.e. Unicode), also to promote vendors to implement those relevant features correctly. -->
Wu X As  one of the basic work items of this task force, this document  summarizes the text composition requirements in the Chinese writing  system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe the issues in Chinese layout requirements, another is to provide satisfactory equivalents to the current standards (i.e. Unicode), and another is to prompt vendors to implement those relevant features correctly.
Richard I
  • Not sure of the meaning of "provide satisfactory equivalents to the current standards (i.e. Unicode)" - does it mean "provide useful companions for currently available standards"?
 

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