Chinese Ruby, also known as Interlinear Annotation, is small, supplementary text attached to certain characters or words in the main text. Chinese ruby is usually set in the interlinear space and aligned to the corresponding base text which it annotates. In Chinese typesetting, Chinese ruby is mainly used to indicate pronunciation or meaning.
In Chinese, interlinear annotation is most commonly used to indicate the pronunciation of Hanzi, the Chinese characters. Presenting the pronunciation alongside the characters is a great help to beginners, especially to children who are native speakers, or to foreigners intending to study Chinese. Therefore, it is rare to annotateisolated Hanzi characters. Instead, phonetic annotations tend to cover the full text. Also, it is not regular practice in Chinese layout to use ruby for pronunciation outside these educational contexts, even for the pronunciation of rarely used characters, although sometimes pronunciation is provided inline, possibly inside brackets.
There are two major annotation systems for indicating Chinese pronunciation: Zhuyin and Romanization.
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號) or Taiwanese Dialect Phonetic Symbols (台灣方言音符號), hereinafter referred to as ‘Zhuyin’, are systems for phonetic annotation mainly used in Taiwan, although other areas may also include Zhuyin in certain dictionaries or textbooks. In most cases, Zhuyin appears on the right side of itscorresponding base text. Exceptions are very rare.
Hanyu Pinyin(汉语拼音), now the official standard in Mainland China, uses the Latin alphabet to transcribe the Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin) pronunciations of Chinese characters. The most common use case in Mainland China is to indicate the pronunciation for all characters of the full text with Hanyu Pinyin. In Taiwan and Hong Kong, the arrangement of the Taiwanese Romanization System for Minnan (台灣閩南語羅馬字),the Romanization System of the Hong Kong Education and Manpower Bureau(教育學院拼音方案) or romanization systems of other Chinese dialects are similar to those of Hanyu Pinyin.
Due to the characteristics of the Latin alphabet, such annotations appear in horizontal writing mode only. Texts for children who are native speakers usually provide reading assistance for each individual character, while texts for those who are learning Chinese as a second language mainly indicate pronunciation for whole words, butoccasionally, both of them are set almost the same. There is space between the basetextwhen whole words are annotated, and the ruby characters will have unique requirements such as sentence case, or punctuation marks corresponding to base characters. Early publications using Pinyin are very varied and lack consistency.Both character-based and word-based annotationsare quite common. No further descriptionof the early pinyin will be found in this document.
Interlinear comments are ways to annotate the meaning of text fragments or a single word, andare so named for their interlinear positioning. They usually lie in the interlinear space and co-exist with the body text. Compared to other annotation methods,i.e. headnotes or footnotes, interlinear comments are more compact and stick better to the body. These kinds of comments are often found in ancient books, such as Rouge Inkstone, an early commentary of the novel Dream of theRed Chamber.
In horizontal writing mode, Zhuyin can be placed above the basetext, but in most cases they are still set to the right side of the base text. On the other hand,Romanization and bilingual annotations can appear both above or below the base text, and the interlinear comments are usually placed at the bottom of the base text.
Annotating with both Romanization and Zhuyin is a practical way to indicate the reading to readers who know only one of these systems, as well as helping study of or enquiries about the other one. Normally, when Romanization and Zhuyin are both provided, the Zhuyin are placed on the right side of the Hanzi while Romanization is set at the bottom of the Hanzi in horizontal writing mode and to the left side in vertical writing mode.
if set to the left in vertical mode, is the pinyin annotation rotated? If so, we should probably mention that, just to be clear. Note also, btw, that earlier we say "such annotations appear in horizontal writing mode only".
According to theManual of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號手冊) released by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, there are two standard ways of positioning Zhuyin:above the corresponding Hanzi (horizontal Zhuyin), or on the right side of the corresponding Hanzi (vertical Zhuyin). The use cases for putting Zhuyin above the base characters are rarely found in today's textbooks or otherpublications, and it is rarely used by the public at large. Therefore, it's always better practice to place Zhuyin annotations on the right side of their corresponding Hanzi,whether in horizontal or vertical writing mode.
The aspect ratio of initials, medials and finals is 9:9, while that of Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialect non-checked tones is 5:5, that of Mandarin neutral tones is 9:2, and that of dialectal checked tones is 5:5.More details and figures can be found in Positioning of Different Composition for the Tones below.
I'm thinking that we should probably include the pictures in the Min of Educ guidelines in this document - it could be in an appendix (?)
I think we should mention this in the text, list the Unicode code points, and preferably have an example picture of them. We should also list the normal mandarin tone code points in Unicode.
Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialectal non-checked tones, are placed by the upper right corner of the last phonetic symbol.
The dialectal checked tones are set alongside the lower right corner of the phonetic symbols.
Positioning of Different Composition for the Tones
Like the line prohibition rules for punctuation, vertical Zhuyin annotations should stick totheir base characters in horizontal writing mode. They must not appear in the line head, and must be placed on the right side of their corresponding Hanzi.
3.4.4 Positioning of Romanized Ruby
Is it set horizontally, or so that it runs down the page? What makes it difficult to read?
Above we say that it is positioned to the left of the vertical column...
If a Romanized annotation is longer than its base text and is at theline head or end, both the annotation and the base text can be aligned to the beginning of the line head or end.
Shouldn't this say: aligned to the beginning of the line head or the end of the line end?
The space between two adjacent annotations should not be smaller than the size of a normal Western-language space, which is about 1/4 em. Due to the limitation of the typesetting technologies, there is usually no space between the rather long phonetic annotations in many printed publications. Luckily, this is not likely to lead to ambiguity because each Hanzi contains one syllable and most Pinyin fragments are easy to tell apart.However, theseannotations can be misleading sometimes. For example, character-based phonetic annotations may result in the false impression that they are word-based. Also, the accidentallyconcatenated annotations may disrupt word boundaries, which alters the semantic meanings of the words.
Annotations are allowed to extendto the top of adjacent base text as long as the minimum spacing is ensured.
As most target readers are beginners to Chinese, the body text is usually in larger sizes and in the Kai typeface.
Due to the fact that Latin letters are proportional (width unknown) and that the advance widthsin different typefaces deviate greatly from one another, the relationship between the sizes of annotations and their base text is somewhat undetermined. Under the influence of the typesetting of Japanese furigana, however, annotations are usually of half size of the base text.
Annotations usually use a sans-serif typeface which is rather thin and plump. It is generally the opinion in publishing and in education that Hanyu Pinyin must use those typefaces in which ‘a’ and ‘g’ are single story and the secondtone mark is thick on the lower part and thin on the upper, as in the handwritten style of the stroke. Actually there have never been any national standards specifying the typefaces and the glyphs for Hanyu Pinyin.
The General Association of Chinese Culture in Taiwan once wrote to the Ministry of Education in Mainland China about the rules for the glyphs of Hanyu Pinyin, and received the response that the glyphs of the letter ‘a’ and ‘g’correspond to those of Latin.There is no requirement demanding the handwritten glyphs.
The base text is a single Hanzi. Only Hanzi is annotated: European numerals or punctuation marks are excluded.
As the phonetic annotations are often wider than their base text, the tracking of the body text should be larger, to allow annotations to expand and to avoid irregular adjustments within the basetext.
The basetextcontains one or more Hanzi. Rules for separating terms can be found inGB/T 16159—2012 Basic Rules of Hanyu Pinyin Orthography.
Annotations sometimes appear below the Han characters.
正文与标音双方皆分词连写。相邻基文之间有约 1/2 em 的空格隔开，基文内部字距通常正常。
Both the phonetic annotations and the base text are separated at word boundaries. The adjacent annotations are separated by a space approximately1/2 em wide, while the tracking inside the base text is usually normal.
Erhuayin, also known as rhotacization of syllable finals, is a special phonetic phenomenon in Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin). Due to the limitations of annotating single Hanzi, the Zhuyin annotations fail to indicate the continuity of Erhuayin and the change of the final sound, while Romanization shows the features of Erhuayin effectively.
think we also need an illustration.
Ligatures are special for their multisyllabic nature, thus its ruby annotation may be typesetincorrectly. The pronunciation of ligatures should be bracketed inline or given in notes instead. Ligaturesare rarein themodern Chinese writing system.
Again, I'm not clear what is meant here by ligature
Typesetting of bilingual annotations is actually quite similar to that of Romanization. Annotations are usually placed at the top side ofthe annotated text— the right side of the base text in vertical writing mode oron top of the base text in horizontal writing mode. -->
Wu XTypesetting of bilingual annotations is actually quite similar to that of Romanization. Annotations are usually placed tothe right of the base text in vertical writing mode,orabove the base text in horizontal writing mode.
In order to maintain the unity of terms, when the lengths of annotations and their base text are different, it is necessary to adjust the alignment between them to avoid misunderstandings.-->
When the length of one annotation is shorter than that of its base text, the annotation can be aligned centered (applied to Western script) or use a larger tracking (applied to Hanzi). There are two methods to satisfy the latter, one is to equally distribute the spacing while the other is to align justified.-->
When the length of an annotation is shorter than that of its base text, the annotation can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use larger tracking (in the case of Hanzi). There are two methods to satisfy the latter, one is to equally distribute the spacing while the other is to align justified.
When the length of one annotation is longer than that of its base text, the base text can be aligned centered (applied to Western script) or use a larger tracking (applied to Hanzi). -->
When the length of an annotation is longer than that of its base text, the base text can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use a larger tracking (in the case of Hanzi).
Interlinear comments can have very varied layouts and lengths. They are usually placed at the foot side of the annotated text — the left side of the base text in vertical writing mode or the bottom of the base text in horizontal writing mode. Sometimes the interlinear comments are in other colors to help reader tell the difference from the body text . -->
Wu XInterlinear comments can have very varied layouts and lengths. They are usually placed at the foot side of the annotated text — to the left side of the base text in vertical writing mode orbelow the base text in horizontal writing mode. Sometimes the interlinear comments are in other colors to help the reader tell the difference from the body text .
Interlinear comments are also used to explain the context anddetailsof a longer text fragment.In such cases, due to the ambiguity of the base text, the annotation can find a suitable place as an anchor and flow down. There's no strict requirement for its length, and sometimes it can be longer than one line.
Talking about the other Hanyu Dialect in Taiwan, Min Nan usually follows the official Taiwanese Romanization System, while Hakka follows a official standard named the Taiwanese Hakka Phonetic Transcription System and Popular Hakka Phonetic Transcription. -->
The other Hanyu Dialect in Taiwan, Min Nan usually follows the official Taiwanese Romanization System, while Hakka follows an official standard named the Taiwanese Hakka Phonetic Transcription System and Popular Hakka Phonetic Transcription.
Hakka has varied tones, even a single character may correspond to different Hakka tones (xi ien/ian kiongˊ, hoi├ liukˋ, @@). Ruby is used less in Hakka because it fails to fully indicate Hakka's pronunciation.
It explains the presentational results and considers these results as the issues and the requirements for Chinese text layout. Meanwhile, it offers the principles or methods of how to handle these issues, without describing particular technological solutions. -->
It describes presentational results and considers these results as issues and requirements for Chinese text layout. Meanwhile, it offers principles or methods for how to handle these issues, without describing particular technological solutions.
As for those issues that people face nowadays in Chinese composition, it attempts to suggest solutions or explain these issues. -->
It suggests solutions for or explains issues that people face nowadays in Chinese composition
It mainly explains modern Chinese publications. Tracked back to the publications from the movable type times, there may be some differences from the modern ones, but are still considered part of the Chinese composition. As for ancient books, the document has not fully covered them yet. The future editions may revise with such situations. --
It mainly explains modern Chinese publications. Looking back to the publications in movable type times, there may be some differences, but they are still considered part of Chinese composition. The document does not yet fully cover ancient books them yet. Future editions may be revised with such features in mind.
For non-Chinese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. They are intuitive for ordinary Chinese text readers, which is comprehensible for non-Chinese readers. These frequencies are only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues. -->
For non-Chinese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. They are intuitive for ordinary Chinese readers, which is comprehensible for non-Chinese readers. These frequencies are only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues.
The main target of this document is common books. Other publications, such as magazines or newspapers, are also included.
Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. In that sense, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology. -->
Chen YEach cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. For that reason, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.
As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document summarizes the text composition requirements in the Chinese writing system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe the issues in the Chinese layout requirements, another one is to provide satisfactory equivalent to the current standards(i.e. Unicode), also to promote vendors to implement those relevant features correctly. -->
Wu XAs one of the basic work items of this task force, this document summarizes the text composition requirements in the Chinese writing system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe the issues in Chinese layout requirements, another is to provide satisfactory equivalents to the current standards(i.e. Unicode), and another is to prompt vendors to implement those relevant features correctly.