According to the Manual of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號手冊) released by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, there are two standard ways of positioning Zhuyin: above the corresponding Hanzi (horizontal Zhuyin), or on the right side of the corresponding Hanzi (vertical Zhuyin). The use cases for putting Zhuyin above the base characters are rarely found in today's textbooks or other publications, and it is rarely used by the public at large. Therefore, it's always better practice to place Zhuyin annotations on the right side of their corresponding Hanzi, whether in horizontal or vertical writing mode.
Choice of Size and Ratio for Zhuyin Symbols
Considering a Hanzi character a square with an aspect ratio of 30:30, the ratio of width to height of its Zhuyin annotation will be set as 15:30. The Zhuyin annotation should stay adjacent to its corresponding base character.
The aspect ratio of initials, medials and finals is 9:9, while that of Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialect non-checked tones is 5:5, that of Mandarin neutral tones is 9:2, and that of dialectal checked tones is 5:5. More details and figures can be found in Positioning of Different Composition for the Tones below.
When the font size of the body is relatively small, it's possible to provide a larger font size for the Zhuyin rather than using the default ratio listed above. Alternatively, other methods, such as bracketing Zhuyin inline, are acceptable.
Positioning of the Tones in Zhuyin Symbols
Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialectal non-checked tones, are placed by the upper right corner of the last phonetic symbol.
The Mandarin neutral tone comes on top before the phonetic symbols.
The dialectal checked tones are set alongside the lower right corner of the phonetic symbols.
各種發音組合的排版方式Positioning of Different Composition for the Tones
注音標音分離禁則Line Prohibition Rules for Zhuyin
Like the line prohibition rules for punctuation, vertical Zhuyin annotations should stick to their base characters in horizontal writing mode. They must not appear in the line head, and must be placed on the right side of their corresponding Hanzi.
羅馬拼音標音的排版 Positioning of Romanized Ruby
Romanization is only available in horizontal writing mode. These phonetic annotations are usually placed on top of the base text. In general, phonetic annotations and their base text stick to each other regardless of space, and both of them are centered-aligned.
In special cases where Romanization is needed in vertical writing mode, the annotations are usually set to the right side of their corresponding base text, but it is difficult to read anyway.
If a Romanized annotation is longer than its base text and is at the line head or end, both the annotation and the base text can be aligned to the beginning of the line head or end.
The space between two adjacent annotations should not be smaller than the size of a normal Western-language space, which is about 1/4 em. Due to the limitation of the typesetting technologies, there is usually no space between the rather long phonetic annotations in many printed publications. Luckily, this is not likely to lead to ambiguity because each Hanzi contains one syllable and most Pinyin fragments are easy to tell apart. However, these annotations can be misleading sometimes. For example, character-based phonetic annotations may result in the false impression that they are word-based. Also, the accidentally concatenated annotations may disrupt word boundaries, which alters the semantic meanings of the words.
Note: This layout requirement relies on the way HTML Ruby Markup Extensions supports <rt> and the way CSS Ruby Module Level 1 deals with space. <ruby><rb>双</rb><rb>窗</rb><rt>shuāng</rt> <rt>chuāng</rt></ruby>
Note: The end of the bottom line and the beginner of the head line usually contains a space.
Note: The end of the bottom line and the beginner of the head line usually contains a space.
As most target readers are beginners to Chinese, the body text is usually in larger sizes and in the Kai typeface.
Due to the fact that Latin letters are proportional (width unknown) and that the advance widths in different typefaces deviate greatly from one another, the relationship between the sizes of annotations and their base text is somewhat undetermined. Under the influence of the typesetting of Japanese furigana, however, annotations are usually of half size of the base text.
Annotations usually use a sans-serif typeface which is rather thin and plump. It is generally the opinion in publishing and in education that Hanyu Pinyin must use those typefaces in which ‘a’ and ‘g’ are single story and the second tone mark is thick on the lower part and thin on the upper, as in the handwritten style of the stroke. Actually there have never been any national standards specifying the typefaces and the glyphs for Hanyu Pinyin.
The General Association of Chinese Culture in Taiwan once wrote to the Ministry of Education in Mainland China about the rules for the glyphs of Hanyu Pinyin, and received the response that the glyphs of the letter ‘a’ and ‘g’ correspond to those of Latin. There is no requirement demanding the handwritten glyphs.
What follows is a detailed description of the difference between two typical use cases.
The base text is a single Hanzi. Only Hanzi is annotated: European numerals or punctuation marks are excluded.
The phonetic annotations are always on the top.
As the phonetic annotations are often wider than their base text, the tracking of the body text should be larger, to allow annotations to expand and to avoid irregular adjustments within the base text.
The phonetic annotations are all in lowercase. Sentence case is rare.
分词连写标音 Words as the Basic Units for Annotating Pronunciation
The base text contains one or more Hanzi. Rules for separating terms can be found in GB/T 16159—2012 Basic Rules of Hanyu Pinyin Orthography.
Annotations sometimes appear below the Han characters.
Both the phonetic annotations and the base text are separated at word boundaries. The adjacent annotations are separated by a space approximately 1/2 em wide, while the tracking inside the base text is usually normal.
Many word-based annotations indicate the logic of the whole sentence, rather than merely the pronunciation: these phonetic annotations have sentence case, as well as punctuation marks which follow the previous annotations.
漢字標音的非典型情況Atypical Cases for Hanzi Phonetic Annotations
Erhuayin, also known as rhotacization of syllable finals, is a special phonetic phenomenon in Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin). Due to the limitations of annotating single Hanzi, the Zhuyin annotations fail to indicate the continuity of Erhuayin and the change of the final sound, while Romanization shows the features of Erhuayin effectively.
Ligatures are special for their multisyllabic nature, thus its ruby annotation may be typeset incorrectly. The pronunciation of ligatures should be bracketed inline or given in notes instead. Ligatures are rare in the modern Chinese writing system.
中外文對照的排版Positioning of Bilingual Annotations
Typesetting of bilingual annotations is actually quite similar to that of Romanization. Annotations are usually placed to the right of the base text in vertical writing mode, or above the base text in horizontal writing mode.
詞的對齊 Word Alignment
In order to maintain the integrity of annotations, when the lengths of annotations and their base text are different it is necessary to adjust the alignment between them to avoid misunderstandings.
When the length of an annotation is shorter than that of its base text, the annotation can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use larger tracking (in the case of Hanzi). There are two methods to satisfy the latter, one is to equally distribute the spacing while the other is to align justified.
When the length of an annotation is longer than that of its base text, the base text can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use a larger tracking (in the case of Hanzi).
Interlinear comments can have very varied layouts and lengths. They are usually placed at the foot side of the annotated text — to the left side of the base text in vertical writing mode or below the base text in horizontal writing mode. Sometimes the interlinear comments are in other colors to help the reader tell the difference from the body text .
Interlinear comments are also used to explain the context and details of a longer text fragment. In such cases, due to the ambiguity of the base text, the annotation can find a suitable place as an anchor and flow down. There's no strict requirement for its length, and sometimes it can be longer than one line.
4. 標題、註解與圖片、表格的排版處理 Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Expressions
4.1 標題處理（包含換頁處理）Headings & Page Breaks
4.1.1 標題的種類Types of Headings
In terms of text composition, there are four types of headings.
Due to the composition requirements, magazines usually use various means to handle the headings while most books have their headings set up in a simpler way, and the heading handling methods for magazines will not be listed in this document.
A whole page headings are used when there is a need to separate sections in a book, usually on a separated page with the following page left blank. Sometimes subheadings, select sentences, names of the authors or selected paragraphs will appear with it as well. The back side of the block heading page is not necessary to be always blank, for example, the Han-tobira in Japanese books, whose following even page is not blank, and is used for the main text.
A block heading is the heading occupying a whole, independent line. The main text is set from the very next line. Top level headings and medium level headings are of this type.
Headings are sub titles, which separate and indicate sub parts with one coherent set of content. Headings are usually classified into several levels such as top level heading, medium level heading and low level heading.
The sequence of the headings on a page should be the name of the book, section heading, top level heading, medium level heading and then low level heading.
In multi-column format, block headings sometimes span multiple columns. This style is called "cross column heading".
A run-in heading is a heading immediately followed by main text without a line break, and is usually used as a low level heading. Note that a low level heading can also appear as a block heading.
4.1.2 使標題得以突顯的方式 Font Selection and Heading Font Size
Character size for the heading: The character size of headings should be selected as appropriate in accordance with the level of headings. For example, when the character size of main text is 9 point, the small-headings are usually set with 10 points, medium-headings are usually set with 12 points and large-headings are usually set with 14 points. The character size of headings is usually larger than main text, and the character size of higher level headings are larger than the size of smaller size headings.
Type faces for headings: Both Heiti or bold Song are usually used. Other type face designs like Yuan and Kai are sometimes used as well.
Alignment of headings (inline direction): In the case of horizontal writing mode, large-headings and medium-headings are in most cases centre-aligned. In the case of vertical writing mode, headings are usually aligned to the line head with some indent.
The number of characters of line head indent for a heading depends on the heading level. If the heading level is higher, the indent character number is less, if the heading level is lower, the number of indent characters is more. The character size is based on the main text of the type area. The differences of character numbers are usually around two characters.
Whether to decorate with solid lines, or give a symbol on the top of the heading.
4.1.3 單頁起、換頁處理 How to Handle Headings with New Recto and Page Break
Always begin with odd pages, i.e. new recto. (note 1):Books usually begin with page 1. Accordingly, vertical writing mode and books bound on the right-hand side begin with a left page, horizontal writing mode and books bound on the left-hand side begin with a right page after a new recto.
Always begin with new pages, regardless of even pages or odd pages, i.e. page breaking. Used for large-heading.
When medium-headings or small-headings appear at the last line of a page and there is no space left for the following paragraphs, the medium-headings or small-headings should be moved to the next page so as to make a proper composition.
4.1.4 單頁起、換頁處理時，前一頁的處理Handling of Spaces just before the New Recto, Page Breaks and New Edges
Spaces just before new rectos, page breaks and new columns are treated as follows (the last pages are treated as the same):
In the case of single column typesetting, the spaces just before the new rectos and page breaks are left as they are.
In the case of multiple columns, the remaining space of preceding columns is left as it is.
In the case of vertical writing mode, columns are filled with text lines from upper right to lower left. There is no need to align line numbers of the upper column and lower column, and remaining spaces are left as they are.
In horizontal writing mode and multi-column format, the number of lines for each column is set to be the same, but where the result of the total number of lines divided by the column number chosen for the type area results in an odd number, the last column may have a smaller number of lines and may be followed by blank space.